All About Bariatric Surgery- Principles, Types, and Risk Factors of Bariatric Surgery

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All About Bariatric Surgery- Principles, Types, and Risk Factors of Bariatric Surgery

What is Bariatric Surgery? 

Bariatric surgery is an umbrella term used for many types of weight-loss surgeries. These weight-loss surgeries help make some major changes in your digestive system, which effectively reduces weight loss. They either reduce your body’s ability to absorb nutrition or limit the amount of food you intake, or both.  People with severe obesity problems are more prone to death risks. Bariatric surgery helps to reduce such severe health risks at the maximum level possible. Patients after bariatric surgery are suggested to adopt a healthy lifestyle and eating for a healthy body functioning.   

Principles of bariatric surgery

Bariatric Surgery is performed with a basic principle that is to restrict the food intake and minimize the food absorption in the intestines and stomach.  The digestion process starts the moment you start chewing your food mixed with saliva and other secretive enzymes. The food then reaches down to the stomach, mixed with digestive juices, and fragmented down so that calories and nutrients can be absorbed. In such a manner, digestion of food becomes faster when it reaches down to the duodenum, mixed with pancreatic juice.  When it comes to Bariatric Surgery, This digestion process gets interrupted so that the food could not be broken down and absorbed in the normal way. In turn, this helps individuals cut down the number of calories and nutrients absorbed, helping them lose weight and decrease their risk factors for obesity-related health risks or disorders.  

Types of Bariatric Surgery 

There are three common types of weight-loss surgeries, and each surgery has its pros and cons. It includes-

Gastric Bypass

Gastric bypass is a very common type of Bariatric surgery where the surgeon cuts across the stomach top while sealing it from the rest part of the stomach.  The main motive behind this surgery is to minimize the normal size of your stomach. The resulting pouch is exactly the size equivalent to walnut’s size and can only hold about an ounce of food. This, in turn, cuts down most of your food intake, and food then bypasses directly into the middle part of your small intestine instead of the first section of the small intestine.

Sleeve Gastrectomy 

This type of weight loss surgery removes about 80 percent of your stomach, leaving a tube-like long pouch. The process reduces the individual’s appetite helping them to stay fit. It includes shorter hospital stays as compared to other weight loss surgery procedures. 

Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. 

This type of surgery involves two steps wherein the first step is done by performing sleeve gastrectomy, while the second surgery consists of connecting the end portion of the intestine to the duodenum, bypassing the major part of the intestine. This surgery advantages the restriction of food intake as well as nutrients absorption. It is known to be extremely effective when it comes to weight loss. Furthermore, it may cause you some health risk factors including malnutrition, and other vitamin deficiencies. 

Risks factors in Bariatric surgery 

Bariatric surgery includes a lot of health risks both in the short term and long term. Short term risks associated with bariatric surgery include-

-Excessive bleeding 
-Lung or breathing problems 
-Adverse reaction to anesthesia 
-Blood clot 
-Leaks in your gastrointestinal system 
-Death (rare) 
Long term complications and risks of bariatric surgery depends on the type of surgery, which include- 
-low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) 
-Bowel Obstruction 
-Acid reflux 
-Dumping syndrome causing flushing, vomiting, nausea, lightheadedness, and diarrhea 
-The need for a second or revision surgery or procedure. 

Consult your doctor to know about your Body Mass Index and risk factors related to different types of weight loss surgery. Your surgeon will take many factors into account, including existing health issues, regular eating habits, previous surgeries, and the existing risk factors involved with each procedure.